Difference between revisions of "Languavardic Language"

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====Class====
 
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Languavardic nouns have two classes: ''azat''-class, which is used for discrete, countable nouns, and ''buras''-class, which is used for uncountable, collective mass nouns.
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Languavardic nouns have two classes: ''azat''-class, which is used for discrete, countable nouns, and ''buras''-class, which is used for uncountable, collective mass nouns. Classless nouns also exist, referring to proper objects that there is only one of.
  
 
====Articles and Number====
 
====Articles and Number====

Revision as of 23:57, 23 May 2020

See also: Vocabulary

The Languavardic language (Lan. Hānaš /xaːnaʃ/) is the majority language spoken in the Tylan sectors of Languawarþ Óbri and Languawarþ Untri.

Phonology

Consonants Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal m /m/ n /n/
Plosive p /p/ b /b/ t /t/ d /d/ g /g/ q /q/
Fricative s /s/ z /z/ š /ʃ/ ž /ʒ/ h /x/ r /ʁ/
Approximant l /l/ y /j/ w /w/

Languavardic uses word-final devoicing, as well as word-initial mutations; if a word is preceded by another that ends with a vowel, then that word's initial consonant is revoiced, e.g. Hunaš "Languavarth", ti "from", ti-Runaš "from Languavarth".

The voiced-voiceless pairs are:

Voiceless Voiced
p b
t d
s z
š ž
q g
h r

M, N, Y, L, and W have no pairings, therefore when they are used word-finally, the word cannot be a noun or adjective, due to the noun-adjective voicing distinction.

Languavardic only has three vowels, but with length distinction:

Vowels Front Center Back
Short i /i/ a /a/ u /u/
Long ī /iː/ ā /aː/ ū /uː/

Grammar

Languavardic is an agglutinative language with verb-initial word order.

Roots

Languavardic uses consonantal roots and vocalic ablaut to derive words. For example, the word Hunaš "Languavarth" comes from the root H-N-Š "the Languavardian people", as does the word Hānaš "the Languavardic language".

Nouns and Adjectives

Nouns and adjectives are interchangeable, but not identical; due to word-final devoicing, words may be spelled with different final consonants, but be pronounced the same. This is used to distinguish nouns and adjectives: nouns are spelled with final voiceless consonants, while adjectives are spelled with final voiced consonants, e.g. Hunaš "Languavarth", Hunaž "Languavardian". This is also done with personal names to make possessives: Māraq "Mark", Mārag "Mark's".

How the adjectives made from nouns relate to those nouns depends on the noun, e.g. adjectives from body parts denote having that body part, adjectives from materials or substances denote being made of that material, adjectives from locations or buildings denote being inside that location, adjectives from tribes or countries denote being of that tribe, etc.

To complicate this further, adjectives can be used as nouns without needing to change the final consonant, in which case the adjective refers to a generic person or thing that it describes, e.g. Hunaš "Languavarth", Hunaž "Languavardian" (when used as a noun), Hunaž-la "the Languavardian" (definite).

Class

Languavardic nouns have two classes: azat-class, which is used for discrete, countable nouns, and buras-class, which is used for uncountable, collective mass nouns. Classless nouns also exist, referring to proper objects that there is only one of.

Articles and Number

Languavardic has three articles: definite, indefinite, and construct. They are suffixed onto the noun, fused with the number marker.

Azat-class Indefinite Construct Definite
Singular -- -wa -la
Plural -yu -ya -il
Buras-class Indefinite Construct Definite
Collective -- -ya -la
Singulative -wi -wa -ul

While the indefinite and definite articles are used to mark indefiniteness and definiteness, respectively, the construct article is used for nouns modified by a genitive construct, e.g. qāluš "president", qāluš-la "the President", ... qāluš-wa "President of ...". The construct state can also be used on its own if the genitive is implied, e.g. Qisāh-wa "the Emperor (of Mechyrdia)", where it is understood that since Mechyrdia is the only state in the entire galaxy to have an Emperor, the noun Qisāh "emperor" must refer to the Emperor of Mechyrdia.

Adjectives, meanwhile, do not take any suffixes to agree with the noun.

Genitive marking

Genitive constructs, i.e. "A of B" are made in Languavardic with the noun adjunct and construct suffix, i.e. "A of B" is "B A-construct". For example, "governor of Languavarth Prime" in Languavardic is Hunaš ug Qalšaq-wa, which is glossed as the following:

Hunaš ug Qalšaq -wa
Languavarth Prime (lit. "one") Governor construct state

Prepositions

Languavardic uses prepositions for all of the arguments of a verb, starting with that the speaker feels is most important, and continuing with decreasing topicality. The following are the prepositions most often used in Languavardic:

Preposition Meaning
ut Agent/animate subject (ergative)
an Direct object/inanimate subject (absolutive)
qa Indirect object (dative)
al Lative "to, towards, to the location of"
nu Locative "at, on, in, inside of"
ti Ablative "from, away from, out of"
su Comitative "with, using, accompanied by"

Languavardic uses split ergativity; animate subjects of intransitive verbs use the preposition ut for agents of transitive verbs, while inanimate subjects use the preposition an for objects of transitive verbs.

Verbs

Languavardic verbs distinguish aspect, voice, and mood. They use fusional suffixes to represent combinations of aspect and mood. There are three aspects: simple, continuous, and perfect; as well as three moods: indicative, subjunctive, and imperative. There are also two voices: active and passive.

There are two classes of verbs: qantal-class representing intransitive verbs, and saqaril-class representing transitive verbs.

Infinitive -l
Qatal-class Simple Continuous Perfect
Indicative -haw -hana -hi
Subjunctive -la -lu -li
Imperative 1st Person Plural 2nd Person Singular 2nd Person Plural 3rd Person Sng/Plr
-nu -n -ni -nal
Infinitive -l
Saqaril-class Simple Continuous Perfect
Active Indicative -hu -han -hay
Subjunctive -lan -law -lay
Passive Indicative -hul -hal -hil
Subjunctive -lahu -laha -lahi
Imperative 1st Person Plural 2nd Person Singular 2nd Person Plural 3rd Person Sng/Plr
Active -nu -n -nay -nali
Passive -nul -l -nal -nil

The aspects and their meanings are as follows:

  • Simple is for an action that is currently ongoing but not progressing towards any particular end goal.
  • Progressive is for an action that is currently progressing to a particular end goal.
  • Perfective is for an action that has been completed within the current frame of reference.

The moods and their meanings are as follows:

  • Indicative is for realis statements.
  • Subjunctive is for irrealis statements, e.g. potentials, wishes, etc.
  • Imperative is for commands. It has four persons:
    • 1st person plural: "let's <verb>!"
    • 2nd person singular: "you! <verb>!"
    • 2nd person plural: "all of you! <verb>!"
    • 3rd person: "he/she/it/they is/are to <verb>."

The 3rd-person imperative is only really used in legal documents.

Part of a series on Mechyrdia