Difference between revisions of "Mechyrdian Standard English"

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|s
 
|s
 
|/s/ (intervocalic)
 
|/s/ (intervocalic)
|ss (after short vowel)
+
|ss (after short vowel)<br/>ß (after long vowel)
ß (after long vowel)
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|z
 
|z
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|y
 
|y
 
|/i/
 
|/i/
|i
+
|i<br/>ü (sometimes)
 +
|-
 +
|wh
 +
|/h/ + /w/ → /ʍ/
 +
|hw
 
|}
 
|}
  
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Mechyrdian English uses the umlaut diacritic to mark grammatical umlaut on words. Words like fote "foot" become föte "feet" in the plural; mann "man" becomes männ "men"; muße "mouse" becomes müße "mice"; goße "goose" becomes göße "geese". Two-letter vowels, such as EA, OA, and OU, are avoided in these words; this is why mouse became ''muße''.
 
Mechyrdian English uses the umlaut diacritic to mark grammatical umlaut on words. Words like fote "foot" become föte "feet" in the plural; mann "man" becomes männ "men"; muße "mouse" becomes müße "mice"; goße "goose" becomes göße "geese". Two-letter vowels, such as EA, OA, and OU, are avoided in these words; this is why mouse became ''muße''.
  
==== Old English Palatalization ====
+
====Old English Palatalization====
 
Mechyrdian English undoes some of the palatalized consonants of Old English. Words like church become ''kirk'', beseech becomes ''besöken'', bridge becomes ''brügg'', day becomes ''dag'', choose becomes ''kosen'', etc.
 
Mechyrdian English undoes some of the palatalized consonants of Old English. Words like church become ''kirk'', beseech becomes ''besöken'', bridge becomes ''brügg'', day becomes ''dag'', choose becomes ''kosen'', etc.
  
=== Grammar ===
+
===Grammar===
  
==== Nouns and Articles ====
+
====Nouns and Articles====
Mechyrdian English maintains a case system for its nouns, inflected in the definite and indefinite articles.
+
Mechyrdian English maintains a case system for its nouns, inflected in the definite and indefinite articles, as well as the word ''þes'' "this". It also has two genders: common and neuter.
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
!Definite Article
 
!Definite Article
Line 176: Line 179:
 
|an
 
|an
 
|an
 
|an
 +
|}
 +
The proximal demonstrative is not to be confused with the definite article, as both start with þ and have some similar forms.
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
!Proximal Demonstrative
 +
!Common
 +
!Neuter
 +
!Plural
 +
|-
 +
!Nominative
 +
|þes
 +
|þis
 +
|þese
 +
|-
 +
!Genitive
 +
|þisses
 +
|þisses
 +
|þisser
 +
|-
 +
!Dative
 +
|þim
 +
|þim
 +
|þim
 +
|-
 +
!Accusative
 +
|þissen
 +
|þis
 +
|þese
 
|}
 
|}
 
Nouns themselves inflect a separate genitive case, replacing the old apostrophe-S possessive ending.
 
Nouns themselves inflect a separate genitive case, replacing the old apostrophe-S possessive ending.
Line 184: Line 214:
 
|-
 
|-
 
!Nominative
 
!Nominative
| --<br/>''dag''<br/>''wist''
+
| --<br />''dag''<br />''wist''
| -s<br/>''dags''<br/>''wists''
+
| -s<br />''dags''<br />''wists''
 
|-
 
|-
 
!Genitive
 
!Genitive
| -s<br/>''dags''<br/>''wists''
+
| -s<br />''dags''<br />''wists''
| -a<br/>''daga''<br/>''wista''
+
| -a<br />''daga''<br />''wista''
 
|}
 
|}
 
The examples given above are ''dag'' "day" and ''wist'' "essence".
 
The examples given above are ''dag'' "day" and ''wist'' "essence".
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|-
 
|-
 
!Nominative
 
!Nominative
| --<br/>''bite''<br/>''gume''
+
| --<br />''bite''<br />''gume''
| -n<br/>''biten''<br/>''gumen''
+
| -n<br />''biten''<br />''gumen''
 
|-
 
|-
 
!Genitive
 
!Genitive
| -n<br/>''biten''<br/>''gumen''
+
| -n<br />''biten''<br />''gumen''
| -n<br/>''biten''<br/>''gumen''
+
| -n<br />''biten''<br />''gumen''
 
|}
 
|}
 
The examples given above are ''bite'' "bite" and ''gume'' "human".
 
The examples given above are ''bite'' "bite" and ''gume'' "human".
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|-
 
|-
 
!Nominative
 
!Nominative
| --<br/>''mann''<br/>''hand''
+
| --<br />''mann''<br />''hand''
|(U) --<br/>''männ''<br/>''händ''
+
|(U) --<br />''männ''<br />''händ''
 
|-
 
|-
 
!Genitive
 
!Genitive
| -s<br/>''mans''<br/>''hands''
+
| -s<br />''mans''<br />''hands''
| -a<br/>''manna''<br/>''handa''
+
| -a<br />''manna''<br />''handa''
 
|}
 
|}
 
The examples given above are ''mann'' "man" and ''hand'' "hand".
 
The examples given above are ''mann'' "man" and ''hand'' "hand".
  
=== Vocabulary ===
+
==== Verbs ====
Mechyrdian English had disposed of many of its non-Germanic-origin words. Words like "Emperor" are replaced with ''keser'', "state" is replaced with ''rike'', "army" is replaced with ''häre'', etc.{{Mechyrdia}}
+
Mechyrdian English also uses more archaically styled verb conjugations. The typical verb conjugation table is as follows:
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
!Verb
 +
!Present
 +
!Past
 +
|-
 +
!Infinitive
 +
| colspan="2"| -en<br />''besöken''<br/>''lüften''
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="3"| Indicative
 +
|-
 +
! 1st Singular
 +
| -a<br/>''besöka''<br/>''lüfta''
 +
| -d<br />''besöked''<br />''lüfted''
 +
|-
 +
! 2nd Singular
 +
| -st<br/>''besökest''<br/>''lüftest''
 +
| -d<br />''besöked''<br />''lüfted''
 +
|-
 +
! 3rd Singular
 +
| -þ<br/>''besökeþ''<br/>''lüfteþ''
 +
| -d<br />''besöked''<br />''lüfted''
 +
|-
 +
! Plural
 +
| -n<br/>''besöken''<br/>''lüften''
 +
| -nd<br />''besökend''<br />''lüftend''
 +
|-
 +
! Participle
 +
| -ing<br/>''besöking''<br/>''lüfting''
 +
| -d<br/>''besöked''<br/>''lüfted''
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="3"| Subjunctive
 +
|-
 +
! Singular
 +
| -a<br/>''besöka''<br/>''lüfta''
 +
| -d<br />''besöked''<br />''lüfted''
 +
|-
 +
! Plural
 +
| -n<br/>''besöken''<br/>''lüften''
 +
| -nd<br />''besökend''<br />''lüftend''
 +
|-
 +
! rowspan="2"| Imperative
 +
! Singular
 +
! Plural
 +
|-
 +
| --<br/>''besök''<br/>''lüft''
 +
| -þ<br/>''besökeþ''<br/>''lüfteþ''
 +
|}
 +
===Vocabulary===
 +
Mechyrdian English had disposed of many of its non-Germanic-origin words. Words like "Emperor", "state", and "army" are replaced with ''keser'', ''rike'', and ''häre''.{{Mechyrdia}}

Revision as of 15:01, 11 November 2019

Mechyrdian Standard English is the variety of English spoken in Mechyrdia. It is significantly different from the Age of Earth's English, as it was reformed to have older, more historical elements reinserted into it.

Differences from Terran English

Phonology and orthography

Perhaps the most notable difference is that Mechyrdian English undoes the Great Vowel Shift and its corresponding consonant changes. This results in a continental vowel system, one that sounds more Germanic and European than Insular English used to.

Vowel Long sound Short sound
I /iː/ /ɪ/
E /eː/ /ɛ/
A /aː/ /a/
O /oː/ /ɔ/
U /uː/ /ʊ/
Always-long vowels
EI /iː/
EA /ɛː/
OA /ɔː/
OU /uː/
Umlaut vowels
Ä /ɛː/ /ɛ/
Ö /eː/ /ɛ/
Ü /iː/ /ɪ/

There are also numerous orthographic changes, notably the replacement of the TH digraph with the letter þ (thorn).

Terran English Phonemic values Mechyrdian English
th /θ/, /ð/ þ
c /k/ k
c /s/ → /ts/ z
ch /tʃ/ tsch
sh /ʃ/ sch
j /dʒ/ dsch
gh /x/ ch
ei, ie /iː/ ei
s /s/ (intervocalic) ss (after short vowel)
ß (after long vowel)
z /z/ s
y /j/ j
y /i/ i
ü (sometimes)
wh /h/ + /w/ → /ʍ/ hw

Umlaut

Mechyrdian English uses the umlaut diacritic to mark grammatical umlaut on words. Words like fote "foot" become föte "feet" in the plural; mann "man" becomes männ "men"; muße "mouse" becomes müße "mice"; goße "goose" becomes göße "geese". Two-letter vowels, such as EA, OA, and OU, are avoided in these words; this is why mouse became muße.

Old English Palatalization

Mechyrdian English undoes some of the palatalized consonants of Old English. Words like church become kirk, beseech becomes besöken, bridge becomes brügg, day becomes dag, choose becomes kosen, etc.

Grammar

Nouns and Articles

Mechyrdian English maintains a case system for its nouns, inflected in the definite and indefinite articles, as well as the word þes "this". It also has two genders: common and neuter.

Definite Article Common Neuter Plural
Nominative þe þat þe
Genitive þes þes þer
Dative þem þem þem
Accusative þen þat þe

The indefinite article has two different endings for some of its forms, one before words starting in vowels, and one before word starting in consonants.

Indefinite Article Before Vowel Before Consonant
Nominative an a
Genitive ans ans
Dative am am
Accusative an an

The proximal demonstrative is not to be confused with the definite article, as both start with þ and have some similar forms.

Proximal Demonstrative Common Neuter Plural
Nominative þes þis þese
Genitive þisses þisses þisser
Dative þim þim þim
Accusative þissen þis þese

Nouns themselves inflect a separate genitive case, replacing the old apostrophe-S possessive ending.

Strong Noun Singular Plural
Nominative --
dag
wist
-s
dags
wists
Genitive -s
dags
wists
-a
daga
wista

The examples given above are dag "day" and wist "essence".

Mechyrdian English distinguishes strong nouns and weak nouns.

Weak Noun Singular Plural
Nominative --
bite
gume
-n
biten
gumen
Genitive -n
biten
gumen
-n
biten
gumen

The examples given above are bite "bite" and gume "human".

Nouns that use umlaut for plurals have a different inflection pattern:

Umlaut Noun Singular Plural
Nominative --
mann
hand
(U) --
männ
händ
Genitive -s
mans
hands
-a
manna
handa

The examples given above are mann "man" and hand "hand".

Verbs

Mechyrdian English also uses more archaically styled verb conjugations. The typical verb conjugation table is as follows:

Verb Present Past
Infinitive -en
besöken
lüften
Indicative
1st Singular -a
besöka
lüfta
-d
besöked
lüfted
2nd Singular -st
besökest
lüftest
-d
besöked
lüfted
3rd Singular
besökeþ
lüfteþ
-d
besöked
lüfted
Plural -n
besöken
lüften
-nd
besökend
lüftend
Participle -ing
besöking
lüfting
-d
besöked
lüfted
Subjunctive
Singular -a
besöka
lüfta
-d
besöked
lüfted
Plural -n
besöken
lüften
-nd
besökend
lüftend
Imperative Singular Plural
--
besök
lüft

besökeþ
lüfteþ

Vocabulary

Mechyrdian English had disposed of many of its non-Germanic-origin words. Words like "Emperor", "state", and "army" are replaced with keser, rike, and häre.

Part of a series on Mechyrdia