Mechyrdian Language

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See also: Vocabulary

Mechyrdian (Mec. Talcatus Mehurdias "Language of Mechyrdia", Mehurdias "of Mechyrdia") is the official language of the Empire of Mechyrdia.

Phonology

Consonants Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Labio-Velar
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ gn /ɲ/ (/ŋ/)
Stop Voiceless p /p/ t /t/ c(i) /ts/ ć /tʃ/ c, k /k/ qu /kʷ/
Voiced b /b/ d /d/ z /dz/ ź /dʒ/ gh /g/ gu /gʷ/
Continuant Voiceless f /f/ þ /θ/ s, sc(i) /s/ ś, sć /ʃ/ h /x/ ƕ /ʍ/
Voiced w /v/ l /l/ r /r/ g(i), j, gl /j/ g /ɣ/ v /w/

⟨c⟩, ⟨sc⟩ and ⟨g⟩ before front vowel letters ⟨e⟩ and ⟨i⟩, as well as semivowel ⟨j⟩, are pronounced /ts/, /s/, and /j/, respectively. Thus, the word scienciais pronounced /si.ɛn.tsa/. The letter ⟨i⟩ forces this palatalization when after the consonant and before a back vowel, such as in the word Ciarstuo /tsarstʊ̯ə/. To prevent palatalization of ⟨c⟩, use the letter ⟨k⟩, and to prevent palatalization of ⟨g⟩, use the digraph ⟨gh⟩.

⟨j⟩ after a consonant at the end of a word palatalizes said consonant, something that also applies to ⟨c⟩ and ⟨g⟩, for example Francj is pronounced /frants/, but Franc is pronounced /fraŋk/.

⟨x⟩ is pronounced /ks/.

Vowels Front Center Back
Close i, y, ie /i/ u /ɨ/ ou /u/
Close-Mid e, aí /e/ ó /o/
Open-Mid / Open e, ai /ɛ/ a /a/ o /ɔ/

Mechyrdian also has diphthongs: ⟨au⟩, ⟨ei⟩, ⟨oi⟩, ⟨eu⟩, and ⟨uo⟩ are pronounced /aʊ̯/, /aɪ̯/, /oɪ̯/, /əʊ̯/, and /ʊ̯ə/, respectively.

Mechyrdian phonotactics are (C)(C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C). Syllables may start with up to four consonants, contain a single vowel, and end with up to three consonants. If the vowel is a diphthong, then the coda may only be up to two consonants.

Grammar

Mechyrdian is a synthetic language: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, and articles are all inflected for grammatical meaning.

Nouns

Mechyrdian doesn't use grammatical gender; instead, nouns are inflected based on their normal (i.e. nominative singular) ending and whether it ends in a vowel or a consonant.

It also has grammatical cases:

  • Nominative is used for calling to people (vocative), or for the subject of a sentence.
  • Instrumental is, just like its name implies, used for how something is done.
  • Genitive is used for possession, origin, partition, or specification, e.g. can méju "my dog", Ciarstuo Nemecias "German Empire", pocul aquas "cup of water", hóm Pólani "Polish man".
  • Dative is used for the indirect object of a sentence, e.g. Rex Jóhan pópuló Imperatóru Rómam giftaviþ "King Johan gave the people Imperator Rome".
  • Accusative is used for the direct object of a sentence.
Declensions Consonant Stem Vowel Stem
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative -- -i -- -s
Instrumental -e -iþ -se
Genitive -i -is -s -si
Dative -ir -r -só
Accusative -u -im -m -su

The stems switch ending patterns in the plural; the plural consonant stem -i takes vowel stem endings, and the plural vowel stem -s takes consonant stem endings. However, nouns ending in palatalized consonants (consonant + ⟨j⟩) are treated as vowel stems ending in -i, unless it is a -cj or -gj, in which case it is treated as consonant stems with a soft C or G. For example, the accusative form of Francj "France" is Franciu, while the accusative form of franc "Swiss franc" is francu; the genitive form of Francj is Franci, while the genitive form of franc is franki.

Pronouns

Mechyrdian pronouns also don't use gender. First second, third person, singular and plural, no gender (that means no he, she, it, or even "bun"). If you need to distinguish between multiple people, use adjectives, i.e. és defórm "the ugly (lit. deformed) man/woman/interdimensional carbon-based pentagender fictionkin", éj pieti "the faithful ones".

Pronouns First Person Second Person Third Person Reflexive
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative gia vi þu ju és éj --
Instrumental mecu nóstricu þecu vóstricu érum éjós secu
Genitive méju nóster, nóstr- þéju vóster, vóstr- éju éjórum séju
Dative mihi nóbés þibi vóbés érim émus sibi
Accusative nós þé vós éd éns

Personal pronouns also take case stacking; the first case is declined as above, and following cases take the normal declensions.

There are other pronouns, determiners, and numerals too, which are mostly declined normally.

  • ƕar: Who? (sometimes irregular) (also means "anyone" inside of si/ću clauses)
    • ƕas: What?
    • ƕant: How many?
    • ƕal: What kind?
    • ƕó: Where?
    • ƕan: When?
    • mit: When... (relative version of ƕas)
    • ƕari: Whose?
    • ƕasi: Of what, from where?
    • ƕe: How?
    • iƕó: Where to, until when?
    • eƕó: Where from, starting when?
    • ƕascaus: Why? (compound w/ caus)
    • þes + ... = This person, this thing, this kind of, here, now...
    • ali- + ... = Anyone, anything, any kind of, anywhere, any time...
    • ... + -te = Whoever, whatever, whatever kind of, wherever, whenever...
  • þar: He/she...
    • þas: It/that...
    • þant: That many.
    • þal: That kind.
    • þó: There...
    • þan: Then...
    • þari: Theirs
    • þasi: Of that, from there
    • iþó: To there, until then
    • eþó: From there, starting then
    • prócaus: Because... (pró + caus)
    • ne- + ... = No-one, nothing, no kind of, nowhere, never
    • pan- + ... = Everyone, everything, every kind of, everywhere, always

The correlatives ƕar, ƕas, þar, and þas can also take consonant stem case endings for case inflection.

Numerals also exist:

  • nil: Zero
  • un: One
  • dvó: Two
  • tria: Three
  • ƕattuor: Four
  • ƕincó: Five
  • sect: Six
  • sept: Seven
  • oht: Eight
  • nihhen: Nine
  • dekemt: Ten
  • dvódekemt: Twenty
  • triadekemt: Thirty
  • cent: 100
  • dvócent: 200
  • þousen: 1,000
  • dexþousen: 10,000
  • cenþousen: 100,000
  • mil: 1,000,000
  • dexmil: 10,000,000
  • cenmil: 100,000,000
  • dvil: 1,000,000,000
  • tril: 1,000,000,000,000
  • ƕattvil: 1,000,000,000,000,000
  • ƕinkil: 1,000,000,000,000,000,000
  • sectil: 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
  • septil: 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
  • ohtil: 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
  • Any powers of ten higher and you should really look into using scientific notation.
  • infinihet: ∞

Every numeral (except for un) is pluralia tantum. Numbers can be compounded with powers of ten, thus the number 2,771 would be represented as dvóþousen septcent septdekemt un.

Ordinals take the suffix -(e)rþ, while numerals of repetition take the suffix -(i)x, and numerals of multiplication take the suffix -(ó)bil.

Adjectives

Adjective declensions are very regular; comparative adjectives take the suffix -iór/jor, while superlative adjectives take the suffix -(i)ssó, and supergressive (defined as "increasingly adj") adjectives take the suffix -(e)rrum.

Verbs

Mechyrdian verbs use four tenses, three participles, three supines, two and two moods.

The four tenses are:

  • Present (non-past, imperfective): I am verbing
  • Imperfect (past, imperfective): I was verbing
  • Aorist (past, perfective): I verbed
  • Future (non-past, perfective): I will verb

This reduces to four in the subjunctive mood:

  • Present: I might verb
  • Past: I would verb

The three participlesare:

  • Present active (verbing)
  • Perfect passive (having been verbed)
  • Future active (about to verb)

The three supines are:

  • Nominal (thing used to verb)
  • Verbal (in order to verb)
  • Adjectival (adjective to verb)

The two moods are indicative and subjunctive.

The verb forms are as follows:

Pres. Act. Part. Perf. Pass. Part. Fut. Act. Part. Sg. Imperative Pl. Imperative
-ns, -nti -t, -ti -tur, -turi -- -té
Nominal Supine Verbal Supine Adjectival Supine Actor Action
-tus -tum -tuþ -tór -ció
Indicative Singular Plural (vi, ju, éj)
1st (gia) 2nd (þu) 3rd (és)
Present -m -st -nas
Imperfect -dam -dast -daþ -dans
Aorist -vi -vist -viþ -varns
Future -som -sés -sé -sont
Subjunctive Singular Plural (vi, ju, éj)
1st (gia) 2nd (þu) 3rd (és)
Present -só -sost -soþ -sons
Past -varm -vés -vé -vant

There is one irregular conjugation, the verb "to be".

Pres. Act. Part. Perf. Pass. Part. Fut. Act. Part. Sg. Imperative Pl. Imperative
ens, enti N/A futur, futuri es esté
Nominal Supine Verbal Supine Adjectival Supine Actor Action
N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Indicative Singular Plural (vi, ju, éj)
1st (gia) 2nd (þu) 3rd (és)
Present beum bist est sint
Imperfect eram erast eraþ erans
Aorist was war wast warn
Future erom erés eré eront
Subjunctive Singular Plural (vi, ju, éj)
1st (gia) 2nd (þu) 3rd (és)
Present bim eris eriþ bint
Past warm warst warþ warns

Verbs as nouns

Verb forms, not only the gerunds and participles but also the conjugated finite forms, can be used as nouns in the object of a sentence, e.g. Sćim tótavistu édu "I know you killed him". When doing this all of the subordinate verb's parameters need the same case suffix.

Uses of the subjunctive

  • Potential subjunctive: Used when the speaker imagines what might occur in certain circumstances.
    • Þu þincasost þesu insanu estu.
    • You might think that this is crazy.
  • Volitive subjunctive: Used for what the speaker wants to happen.
    • Télic és adwarþ!
      If only he were here already!
  • Indirect questions: Used to indicate when words are quoted in indirect questions.
    • Haus ƕó habitasoþ.
      The house where he lives.
  • Conditional clauses: After si "if", the subjunctive expresses an imagined situation.
    • Si tótat bim...
      If I had been killed...

Prepositions

Mechyrdian prepositions modify the meaning of a noun with respect to a verb. They can also be prefixed to a verb, modifying the meaning of the verb itself, e.g. "around, about", þinkatj "to think", déþinkatj "to think about, ponder, consider". Prepositions can also be compounded to nouns, and the noun can be compounded with a case specifying the meaning of the preposition, e.g. patrihet"fatherland", ex (+GEN) "from outside of, not belonging to", expatriheti "foreign", ex (+ACC) "out of, away from, exiting", expatrihetu "emigrant".

Prepositions of motion towards tend to take the accusative, those of motion away from tend to take the genitive, those of motion around or about tend to take the instrumental, and those not relating to motion tend to take the dative. Some prepositions can take multiple cases, and the case determines the specific meaning of the preposition.

The list of important prepositions is:

  • pór (+DAT) "for, supporting"
  • ex/e (+ACC) "out of, away from, exiting" (+DAT) "outside of but not moving away from" (+GEN) "from outside of, not belonging to"
  • v/ou (+ACC) "into, towards the interior of" (+DAT) "in, inside of"
  • gratu (+GEN) "for the sake of, for the glory of"
  • justa (+DAT) "next to but different from, contrasting with"
  • nében (+DAT) "next to, touching" (different from justain that it doesn't imply any contrast)
  • circu (+INS) "about, around"
  • d/dé (+DAT) "about, concerned with"
  • protter (+DAT) "because of"
  • prócul (+DAT) "far away from"
  • pre (+DAT) "before, more important than"
  • aput (+DAT) "among, at the home of"
  • j/i (+ACC) "to, towards"
  • ab/a (+DAT) "by, near, next to but not contrasting with"
  • d/de (+GEN) "down from" (+DAT) "below"
  • ult (+GEN) "further from, beyond"
  • ob/ó (+DAT) "facing, against, across from"
  • cónter (+DAT) "standing against" (+ACC) "attacking"
  • có (+DAT) "with, accompanied by"
  • sin (+DAT) "without, lacking in"
  • per (+ACC) "through, going into and coming out of on the other side"

Circu can also be used as a conjunction, where it multiplies two numbers.

For prepositions that are separated by a slash /, the first is used before words starting in a vowel, and the second is used for words starting in a consonant. E.g. v infernu"into hell", ou celu"into heaven".

Important Affixes

Mechyrdian is agglutinative, meaning that words take affixes for grammatical meaning. Here you will find a list of some important affixes.

Affixes also use the same consonant stem/vowel stem distinction of noun cases. Verbs are always vowel stems without the infinitive ending, however.

Noun/adjective affixes

  • -smendi, -imendi: -ist, -arian, subscribing to a certain belief system. (lit. of a mind of)
    • E.g. Nacimendi "Nazi", sócialimendi "socialist, pinko", freihetimendi "libertarian"
  • -smend, -imend: -ism, describing a certain belief system. (lit. a mind of)
    • E.g. Marximend "Marxism", fasćesmend "Fascism", folcstuosmend "republicanism", auþorhetimend "authoritarianism".
  • -rió, -urió: leader of
    • E.g. centurió "centurion"
  • -het, -ihet: state of being, place of
    • E.g. amikihet "friendship", patrihet "fatherland", hómihet "humanity, mankind", artifactihet "museum"
  • -esc, -nesc: -esque, resembling
    • E.g. Italianesc "Italianesque"
  • -ari, -rari: -arium, collection of
    • E.g. linari "polygon" (lit. collection of lines), faciari "polyhedron" (lit. collection of faces), Faciari "Facebook (archaic)" (lit. collection of faces), wórtari "dictionary", adóltukindari "Tumblr" (lit. collection of adult children)
  • (adj) -uol, -vol: intentions
    • E.g. bónuol "good intentions", maluol "bad intentions"
  • -sćam, -asćam: to become
    • E.g. iratasćam "I become angered"
  • -sim, -asim: a fake version of, a poor replica of, a shoddy replacement for
    • E.g. śteltehasim "astrology" (lit. fake astronomy), hómasim extremely derogatory insult, medicintehasim "homeopathy", tehasim "pseudoscience, crystal healing, faith healing, anything to do with the word 'chakra' or 'aura', misuse of scientific terminology for the purpose of economic gain, etc." (-> tehasimór "quack, pseudoscientist, con man, snake oil salesman")
  • -simam, -asimam: to fake, feign, intentionally resemble
    • E.g. bónuolasimam "I fake good intentions"
  • -stuo: a nation of/led by
    • E.g. folcstuo "republic" (lit. a country led by the citizenry)
  • -cia, -icia: female (usually applied to ruler titles)
    • E.g. rekicia "queen", cónsulicia "consuless"
  • -trum, -itrum: that which makes or creates
    • E.g. neiþitrum "affirmative action" (lit. that which creates justified envy)
  • -tór, -ór: one who makes, creates, causes to be
    • E.g. talcatusór "conlanger" (lit. one who creates languages)
  • ré-: inverts numbers
    • E.g. rétria "-3"

Verb affixes

  • -gam: to cause to happen
    • E.g. iratasćagam "I anger (someone else)"
  • -tór: doer, one who does
    • E.g. iratasćagatór "troll" (lit. one who angers)
  • -vol: wanter, someone who wants verb to happen
    • E.g. victimasimavol "radical feminist" (lit. someone who wants to look like a victim)
  • -tem: -ivity, a tendency to verb
    • E.g. incenditem "flammability", iratasćatem "irritability"
  • -bil: able to be verbed
    • E.g. vidibil "visible"
  • -þam: frequentative
    • E.g. ghénaþam "I travel" (lit. I go frequently)
  • -cio: the action, process, or result of doing something
    • E.g. federacio "federation"
  • ré-: back, again, repeated (in the other direction)
    • E.g. rétalcatj "to reply verbally", réghénatj "to return"

General affixes

  • -ari, -rari: place characterized by the root
    • E.g. educari "school" (lit. place of education), judecari "court" (lit. place of judges), réeducari "reeducation camp" (lit. place of reeducation)
  • -um, -m: person characterized by the root (can also be adj.)
    • E.g. sacarum "saint" (lit. holy person), félinum "crazy cat lady", þesƕanum "modern" (lit. characterized by now), panþanum "immortal" (lit. characterized by always), bónuolmalum "extremist" (lit. characterized by good intentions and bad actions)
  • -log: the study of something (typically used for soft sciences)
    • E.g. bóhlog "theology", folclog "sociology" (lit. the study of people), talcatuslog "linguistics", þincalog "psychology"
  • -teh: the science of something (typically used for hard sciences)
    • particulteh "particle physics", flouśtofteh "fluid dynamics", cialteh "mathematics", śtelteh "astronomy", medicinteh "medicine", teh "science"
  • -ów, -nów (male); -ówa, -nówa (female): of a family (used for familinumeni)
    • E.g. Hóhenciollernów "von Hohenzollern", Vinciorów "of Windsor"
  • -ić, -wić (male); -ića, -wića (female): son/daughter of a parent (used for erbennumeni)
    • E.g. Juliwić "son of Julius", Faustića "daughter of Fausta"
  • -ul-, -l-: diminutive
    • E.g. cnigul "booklet", ridulatj "to smile" (from ridatj "to laugh")
  • -eni, -ni (masculine/neuter/common); -etta, -tta (feminine): affectionate
    • E.g. Julini (from Julius), Niketta (from Nike), hauseni "home" (from haus)
  • -ólc-, -lc-: pejorative of quality
    • E.g. ridólcam "to giggle in an incredibly annoying manner" (from ridam "to laugh"), gradólc "slum, ghetto" (from grad "city"), leitólcam "mismanage" (from leitam "to rule")
  • -if-, -f-: pejorative of morality
    • E.g. ridifam "to cackle" (from ridam "to laugh"), déridifam "to mock, make fun of", gradif "wretched hive of scum and villainy" (from grad"city"), leitrif "tyrant" (from leitór "ruler")
  • -ólken-, -lken-: cool and awesome but also kind of trashy
    • E.g. virólkeni "the dudes" (from vir "man"), milicialken "warband" (from miticia "army")
  • -enif-, -nif-: evil but actually kind of cool
    • E.g. Bóhenifi "the Chaos Gods from Warhammer 40K", Patrenif "Darth Vader from Star Wars", Senatenif "Sheev Palpatine"
  • -acla, -cla: augmentative
    • E.g. hausacla "mansion" (from haus "house"), naciacla "empire (informal)" (from nacia "nation")

Direct and Indirect Interrogatives

Mechyrdian interrogatives are words used in Mechyrdian to ask questions. Colloquially known as Ƕ-words Ƕ-wórti, they are mostly listed above in the Pronouns section, with the exception of ću "if/whether". Ću is used for "yes/no" questions, e.g. Ću Mehurdiasu talcast? "Do you speak Mechyrdian?". For answers to ću-questions, the following words:

  • "yes" tac
  • "maybe" móźet
  • "yes, among other things" auh
  • "it's more complicated than your question implies" tacnet
  • "no" nét

...can be prefixed to the word "to say" sétj, creating following words:

  • tacsém "I agree, affirm, say yes"
  • móźetsém "I neither confirm nor deny"
  • auhsém "I express affirmation to a question while pointing out that it only covers part of the truth"
  • tacnetsém "I both confirm and deny"
  • nétsém "I disagree, deny, say no".

These words can also be used on their own, e.g. Tacsém malihetim tidim etu malim, ódnac nétsém þincatim tidim etu werbótandim "I agree that those atrocities are bad, but I disagree that those ideas must be forbidden." Marcus Saharmóns móźetsévit Facicnigu śpiónatu pópulóm "Mark Zuckerberg neither confirmed nor denied that Facebook spies on people".

Direct questions use the indicative mood, while indirect questions use the subjunctive mood, e.g. éd rógavi ću és Mehurdiasu talcasoþ. Nétséviþ. "I asked him if he spoke Mechyrdian. He said no."

Indirect answers use indirect statements if the answer is revealed to the listener, and subjunctive clauses with stating-verbs if the answer is not. For example, és nóbés séviþ éns cóncelantim. "He told us (lit. to us) that they are hiding.", but és nóbés sévit ƕó éj bint. "He told us where they are."

Naming customs

Mechyrdian names come in 3-4 parts:

  • The birth/personal name: hóminumen (lit. name of the person)
  • The patronym (for men) or matronym (for women): erbennumen (lit. inherited name)
  • The family name: familinumen (lit. name of the family)
  • (OPTIONAL) The honor name: meronumen (lit. earned name)

The hóminumen

The personal name is given to the child at birth. When the child reaches 16, the age of adulthood, he is given the choice to change his name with government records at any time, for a small fee.

The erbennumen

The patronymic/matronymic is derived from the father's (for boys) or mother's (for girls) personal name. Thus, if the father has Titó as a personal name, and the mother has Fausta as a personal name, the sons will have Titówić as their patronymic, and the daughters will have Faustića as their matronymic.

The familinumen

Familinumeni are typically much more diverse than hóminumeni. It designates a Mechyrdian citizen as a member of a famil. A famil, which is usually translated as "family" or "tribe", formed an extended Mechyrdian family, all of whom shared the same familinumen.

The meronumen

The meronumen, or "earned name", is a part of the Mechyrdian name derived from some heroic or virtuous act that is attributed to the bearer, e.g. the previous Ciar of Mechyrdia Dracan I, full name Dracan Arcanić Mehurdów Caltvictór, for reigning during the Mechyrdian victory in the Fulkreyksk Cold War.

Spelling alphabet

The Standard Mechyrdian Spelling Alphabet is maintained by the Mechyrdian Language Institution, a private nonprofit organization dedicated to the Mechyrdian language.

Symbol Name Meaning Origin
A Alef Aleph, Alpha Greek/Semitic
B Beþ Beth, Beta Greek/Semitic
C Ciar Emperor Politics
Ć Ćarm Charm quark Physics
D Daleþ Daleth, Delta Greek/Semitic
E Epsil Epsilon Greek
É Het Eta Greek
F Folc People Mechyrdian
G Gamel Gimel, Gamma Greek/Semitic
H Hagal Hail (the precipitation) Germanic
Ƕ Aiƕar Horse Gothic
I Ioþ Yod, Iota Greek/Semitic
J Julius Julius Roman history
K Kaisar Tribal chief Gothic
L Lameþ Lamed, Lambda Greek/Semitic
M Maus WW2-era German heavy tank Military history
N Nicai Nicaea History
O Omicar Omicron Greek
Ó Omega Omega Greek
P Pobéd Victory Slavic
Q Quorum Quorum Politics
R Rainard Fox French/British English
S Slawa Glory Slavic
Ś Śwert Sword German
T Tau Tau Greek
Þ Þorn Thorn Gemanic
U Upsil Upsilon Greek
V Vult (God) wills it Religion
W Wiking Viking History
X Xenon Xenon Chemistry
Y Ymir Ymir Mythology
Z Zajin Zayin Greek/Semitic
Ź Źrecj Priest Slavic

Many of these letters are based on Greek and Semitic names. Others are based on history, roots from various Terran languages, mythology, science, or politics.

Part of a series on Mechyrdia