Mechyrdian Standard English

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Mechyrdian Standard English is the variety of English spoken in Mechyrdia. It is significantly different from the Age of Earth's English, as it was reformed to have older, more historical elements reinserted into it.

Differences from Terran English

Phonology and orthography

Perhaps the most notable difference is that Mechyrdian English undoes the Great Vowel Shift and its corresponding consonant changes. This results in a continental vowel system, one that sounds more Germanic and European than Insular English used to.

Vowel Long sound Short sound
I /iː/ /ɪ/
E /eː/ /ɛ/
A /aː/ /a/
O /oː/ /ɔ/
U /uː/ /ʊ/
Always-long vowels
EI /iː/
EA /ɛː/
OA /ɔː/
OU /uː/
Umlaut vowels
Ä /ɛː/ /ɛ/
Ö /eː/ /ɛ/
Ü /iː/ /ɪ/

There are also numerous orthographic changes, notably the replacement of the TH digraph with the letter þ (thorn).

Terran English Phonemic values Mechyrdian English
th /θ/, /ð/ þ
c /k/ k
c /s/ → /ts/ z
ch /tʃ/ tsch
sh /ʃ/ sch
gh /x/ ch
ei, ie /iː/ ei
s /s/ (intervocalic) ss (after short vowel)
ß (after long vowel)
z /z/ s
y /i/ ü (sometimes)
wh /h/ + /w/ → /ʍ/ hw

Umlaut

Mechyrdian English uses the umlaut diacritic to mark grammatical umlaut on words. Words like fote "foot" become föte "feet" in the plural; mann "man" becomes männ "men"; muße "mouse" becomes müße "mice"; goße "goose" becomes göße "geese". Two-letter vowels, such as EA, OA, and OU, are avoided in these words; this is why mouse became muße.

Old English Palatalization

Mechyrdian English undoes some of the palatalized consonants of Old English. Words like church become kirk, beseech becomes besöken, bridge becomes brügg, day becomes dag, choose becomes kosen, etc.

Grammar

Nouns and Articles

Mechyrdian English maintains a case system for its nouns, inflected in the definite and indefinite articles, as well as the word þes "this". It also has two genders: common and neuter.

Definite Article Common Neuter Plural
Nominative þe þat þe
Genitive þes þes þer
Dative þem þem þem
Accusative þen þat þe

The indefinite article has two different endings for some of its forms, one before words starting in vowels, and one before word starting in consonants.

Indefinite Article Before Vowel Before Consonant
Nominative an a
Genitive ans ans
Dative am am
Accusative an an

The proximal demonstrative is not to be confused with the definite article, as both start with þ and have some similar forms.

Proximal Demonstrative Common Neuter Plural
Nominative þes þis þese
Genitive þisses þisses þisser
Dative þim þim þim
Accusative þissen þis þese

Nouns themselves inflect a separate genitive case, replacing the old apostrophe-S possessive ending.

Strong Noun Singular Plural
Nominative --
dag
wist
-s
dags
wists
Genitive -s
dags
wists
-a
daga
wista

The examples given above are dag "day" and wist "essence".

Mechyrdian English distinguishes strong nouns and weak nouns.

Weak Noun Singular Plural
Nominative --
bite
gume
-n
biten
gumen
Genitive -n
biten
gumen
-n
biten
gumen

The examples given above are bite "bite" and gume "human".

Nouns that use umlaut for plurals have a different inflection pattern:

Umlaut Noun Singular Plural
Nominative --
mann
hand
(U) --
männ
händ
Genitive -s
mans
hands
-a
manna
handa

The examples given above are mann "man" and hand "hand".

Pronouns

Mechyrdian English personal pronouns are similar to Terran English, however there is a distinction between 2nd person singular and 2nd person plural, and the pronouns' possessive forms are also inflected for a case system:

Pronouns 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Singular Plural Singular Plural Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
Nominative I we þou you he sche it þey
Genitive mine our þine awer his her its þer
Dative me ous þe aw him her im þem
Accusative me ous þe aw hin her it þem

Like Terran English, the "default" grammatical gender for people of unknown or unspecified gender is the masculine gender.

Possessive Pronouns 1st person Singular 1st person Plural 2nd person Singular 2nd person Plural
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative mine mina our our þine þina awer awerra
Genitive mines miner ours oura þines þiner awers awerra
Dative minem minem ourm ourm þinem þinem awerm awerm
Accusative mina mina ourn our þina þina awern awer

Verbs

Mechyrdian English also uses more archaically styled verb conjugations. The typical verb conjugation table is as follows:

Verb Present Past
Infinitive -en
besöken
lüften
Indicative
1st Singular -a
besöka
lüfta
-d
besöked
lüfted
2nd Singular -st
besökest
lüftest
-d
besöked
lüfted
3rd Singular
besökeþ
lüfteþ
-d
besöked
lüfted
Plural -n
besöken
lüften
-nd
besökend
lüftend
Participle -ing
besöking
lüfting
-d
besöked
lüfted
Subjunctive
Singular -a
besöka
lüfta
-d
besöked
lüfted
Plural -n
besöken
lüften
-nd
besökend
lüftend
Imperative Singular Plural
--
besök
lüft

besökeþ
lüfteþ

Vocabulary

Mechyrdian English had disposed of many of its non-Germanic-origin words. Words like "Emperor", "state", and "army" are replaced with keser, rike, and häre.

Part of a series on Mechyrdia