Tylan Language

From FranciscusRex
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also: Vocabulary

The Tylan language (Tyl. Rheagda Tulasra /r̥ea̯g.da ty.las.ra/) is an officially recognized minority language in the Empire of Mechyrdia.

Phonology

Consonants Labial Dental Alveolar Palato-Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m /m/ n /n/
Stop Voiceless p /p/ t /t/ (k) /c/ k /k/ ' /ʔ/
Voiced b /b/ d /d/ (g) /ɟ/ g /g/
Continuant Voiceless ff, fv /f/ th /θ/ s-, ss, -s /s/ sh /ʃ/ hj, (ch), (-g) /ç/ ch, -g /x/ h /h/
Voiced f, v /v/ dh /ð/ -s- /z/ j /j/
Liquid Voiceless ll, lh, hl /ɬ/ rr, rh, hr /r̥/
Voiced l /l/ r /ɾ/

K, G, and H before /j/, are palatalized into /c/, /ɟ/, and /ç/, respectively.

Tylan has word-final consonant devoicing, meaning that voiced consonants in voiced-voiceless pairs are replaced with their voiceless counterparts in word-final position. /ɾ/ and /l/ are exceptions, they are not replaced with /r̥/ or /ɬ/. /g/ is replaced with /x/ when after back vowels, and /ç/ when after front vowels.

Vowels Front Unrounded Front Rounded Center/Back
Close i /i/ u /y/ ou /u/
Mid e /e/ eu /ø/ o /o/
Open a /a/

There are 7 vowel phonemes; four front, three back, as well as 5 diphthong phonemes:

Diphthongs From Front From Center/Back
To Close ei /ei̯/ au /au̯/
To Mid eo /eo̯/ ae /ae̯/
To Open ea /ea̯/ oa /oa̯/

The glottal stop

The apostrophe ' is only used to represent a glottal stop in between two vowels. In other contexts, it's used to split digraphs or diphthongs.

For example:

  • rho'et "follower" is pronounced /r̥oʔet/ with a glottal stop, because OE is not a diphthong.
  • do'ag "loyal (ethereal)" is pronounced /do.ax/ with a hiatus, because OA is a diphthong.
  • do'ig "loyal (terrestrial)" is pronounced /do.iç/ with a hiatus, because its ethereal form do'ag also uses a hiatus.
  • ket'hela "galaxy" is pronounced /ket.he.la/ with a separate T and H, because TH is a digraph.

Grammar

Tylan is a fusional language; nouns, verbs, adjectives, and pronouns use various endings to inflect meaning.

Nouns and Adjectives

Tylan has three noun classes: terrestrial, ethereal, and spiritual. These noun classes determine the endings that adjectives use for the nouns that they describe.

Tylan also has three cases:

  • Nominative-Accusative: For the subject of a sentence, if before the verb, or the direct object, if after the verb. Also used for referring to the listener directly (vocative).
  • Dative: For the indirect object of a sentence, e.g. "I gave the nuclear codes to the Burgundians." In that case, "the Burgundians" is a dative noun. It is also used in a benefactive sense, e.g. "For the Empire!" becomes Kjarshtae! (the dative form of Kjarshtam)
  • Genitive: For possession or partition, e.g. "my house", "jar of piss". Also used for most prepositions.

Tylan has two numbers: singular and plural.

Vowel Declensions O-stem E-stem terrestrial/ethereal E-stem spiritual
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nom-Acc -ot -os -et -es -eth -eta
Dative -oa -otas -ea -etas -ea -etas
Genitive -o -otan -e -etan -e -etan
Vowel Declensions A-stem terrestrial A-stem ethereal A-stem spiritual
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nom-Acc -ar -as -a -as -am -a
Dative -ae -amas -ae -amas -ae -amas
Genitive -as -an -as -an -as -an
Irregular Vowel Declensions U-stem I-stem terrestrial/ethereal I-stem spiritual
Terr/Eth Sg. Spiritual Sg. Plural Singular Plural Singular
Nom-Acc -ur -u -ura -ir -unir -i
Dative -uri -unar -uni -inar -uni
Genitive -us -uja -is -ira -is
Consonant Declensions Nasal-stem terrestrial/ethereal Nasal-stem spiritual L-stem
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nom-Acc -- -nes -- -na -l -la
Dative -ni -nem -ni -nem -- -lis
Genitive -nes -n -nes -n -l -llan
Consonant Declensions G-stem terrestrial G-stem ethereal G-stem spiritual
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nom-Acc -ig -is -ag -achs -og -oa
Dative -i -ims -ach -ams -o -oms
Genitive -is -in -aes -aen -ochs -on
Other Declensions Other consonant-stem terrestrial/ethereal Other consonant-stem spiritual Other vowel-stem
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nom-Acc -(C) -(C)os -(C) -(C)a -(V) -(V)s
Dative -(C)ou -(C)ons -(C)ou -(C)ons -(V)g -(V)m
Genitive -(C)os -(C)on -(C)os -(C)on -(V)st -(V)n

Tylan has many declensions: O-stem, E-stem, A-stem, U-stem, and I-stem are the vowel declensions; nasal-stem, L-stem, and G-stem are the consonant declensions; the other-stem declensions are used mostly for loanwords, however there are some native words that use them.

Nouns may use any declension. Adjectives only use the A-stem, E-stem, O-stem, G-stem, L-stem, or nasal-stem declensions. A-stem and G-stem adjectives change forms for all three classes, E-stem and nasal-stem adjectives change forms between terrestrial/ethereal and spiritual, and O-stem and L-stem adjectives are invariant for noun class.

Articles

Tylan has one type of article: the definite article, used for marking definiteness on nouns. Unlike noun declensions, the definite article does distinguish the nominative and accusative cases.

Definite article Terrestrial Ethereal Spiritual
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative se sae sot soa sat sot
Accusative seg saeg sok sak seg saeg
Dative ser serm sor sorm ser serm
Genitive sest sent sost sont sest sent

Pronouns and Correlatives

Tylan personal pronouns have mostly the same cases that its nouns do, except that they split the Nominative-Accusative case. Personal pronouns have separate Nominative and Accusative cases.

Personal Pronouns First-person Second-person Reflexive
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative sig mus pae aff --
Accusative sida mutha paura alrea doaha
Dative sirga misa paga auva dochi
Genitive seol mor pael aur doal
Possessive Adjective seolar, -a, -am moret, -eth paelar, -a, -am auret, -eth doalar, -a, -am

The possessive forms of personal pronouns are inflected as adjectives: seolar, paelar, and doalar are A-stem adjectives, while moret and auret are E-stem.

The reflexive pronoun is used to refer back to the subject of a sentence, e.g. Sig dochi vrani throna paela "I gave your money to myself."

Third-Person Pronouns Terrestrial Ethereal Spiritual
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative var vars vra vars varm vra
Accusative vara vrasa vraha vrasa vara vrasa
Dative verae vram vrae vram verae vram
Genitive vars vran vras vran vars vran

Third-person pronouns have standard forms for their genitive cases, not adjectival forms like in the first-person or second-person.

Proximal Pronouns "this right here" Terrestrial / Ethereal Spiritual
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nom-Acc prot prost proat proata
Dative prota prosat prota prosat
Genitive proa prontat proa prontat
Distal Pronouns "that over there" Terrestrial / Ethereal Spiritual
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nom-Acc ralt ralts raltem raltea
Dative ralta raltat ralta raltat
Genitive raltas raltam raltas raltam

Interrogative pronouns don't distinguish number.

Interrogative pronouns Terrestrial / Ethereal "Who" Spiritual "What"
Nominative geadh geva
Accusative gedhan
Dative gerae
Genitive geasa

Tylan correlatives are the various interrogative, demonstrative, and universal forms of various concepts.

Correlatives Interrogative/Relative
(gea-)
Demonstrative
(vrea-)
Universal
(moa-)
Negative
(dhal-)
Basic
(nominal declension)
geadh, geva

"what?"

vre'ar, vre'a, vre'am

"this/that"

modhar, modha, modham

"everyone, everything"

dhalig, dhalag, dhalog

"nothing, no one"

Number
(-thaul)
geathaul

"how many...?"

vreathaul

"this/that many..."

moathaul

"all of the..."

dhallaul

"none of the..."

Type
(-sal)
geasal

"what kind of...?"

vreasal

"this/that kind of..."

moasal

"all kinds of..."

dhalsal

"no kind of..."

Location
(-kjols)
geakjols (short form gjak)

"where?"

vreakjols (short form vreak)

"here/there"

moakjols

"everywhere"

dhalkjols

"nowhere"

Purpose
(singular dative spiritual-class)
gerae

"why? for what cause?"

verae

"because/for the sake of..."

modhae

"inevitably" (lit. "because of anything")

dhalo

"arbitrarily" (lit. "because of nothing")

Manner
(-vahae)
geavahae (short form gjav)

"how?"

vreahae (short form vreav)

"by..."

moavahae

"by doing everything necessary" (lit. "by all means")

dhalvahae

"by doing nothing/it just happened" (lit. "by no means")

Time
(-nauho)
geanauho (short form gjan)

"when?"

vreanauho (short form vrean)

"then"

moanauho

"always"

dhalnouho

"never"

Repetition
(-noar)
geanoar

"how many times?"

vreanoar

"this/that many times"

monar

"forever" (lit. "repeated infinitely")

dhalnor

"don't" (lit. "repeated not at all")

Some correlative meanings may seem inconsistent in translation, however they still make sense from a Tylan perspective.

Adjectival degrees

Tylan has five degrees of adjectives:

  • Positive (the default): kjal vlarhet, "long spear"
  • Comparative "more than something else": srokjal vlarhet, "longer spear"
  • Superlative "most": sach srokjal vlarhet, "longest spear"
  • Supergressive "increasingly, more than it used to be": vlakjal vlarhet, "increasingly long spear"
  • Perfective "perfectly, as much as it can possibly be": sach vlakjal vlarhet, "infinitely long spear" or "spear of the perfect length (for a certain task)" (depends on context)
  • Exclamative "how <adjective>!": gjag kjal vlarhet!, "look at how big this spear is!"

Verbs

Verbs have two conjugation patterns: front-stem and back-stem.

There are six tenses:

  • Gnomic: I tend to verb. (as a general fact)
  • Present: I am verbing.
  • Imperfect: I was verbing.
  • Aorist: I verbed.
  • Perfect: I have verbed.
  • Future: I will verb.

These six tenses are put into three groups of terrestrial, ethereal, and spiritual; these groups have a past-like tense and a non-past tense.

Tenses Terrestrial Ethereal Spiritual
Non-past Present Future Gnomic
Past-like Imperfect Perfect Aorist

There are also two moods:

  • Indicative, for actions that are. (realis)
  • Subjunctive, for actions that should/would/could be. (irrealis)

There are also many participles and infinitives.

Front-stem verb conjugation Gnomic Present Imperfect Aorist Perfect Future
Indicative -e -et -evat -i -ivat -eva
Subjunctive -ena -enth -eoth -it -ivut -iva
Non-finite forms
Active Present participle -enar, -ena, -enam Past participle -etot, -etot, -etot Infinitive -en
Passive Present participle -e, -enes Past participle -ethar, -etha, -etham Infinitive -er

N/A indicates an impossible or unavailable tense/mood combination.

Back-stem verb conjugation Gnomic Present Imperfect Aorist Perfect Future
Indicative -a -at -avat -o -ovat -ava
Subjunctive -ana -anth -auth -ot -ovot -ova
Non-finite forms
Active Present participle -anar, -ana, -anam Past participle -atot, -atot, -atot Infinitive -an
Passive Present participle -a, -anes Past participle -athar, -atha, -atham Infinitive -ar

Back-stem verbs have a different vowel stem than front-stem verbs, but are otherwide identical.

In literary speech, the subjunctive forms of verbs are also used as the imperative, however in colloquial speech, the present/future infinitives are used as the imperative.

  • Literary speech:
    Pae krajana vara!
    Kill him! (lit. you should kill him)
  • Colloquial speech:
    Krajan vara!
    Kill him! (lit. to kill him)

Irregular verbs

Tylan has two irregular verbs: kauri "to make" and tvashon "to believe".

Conjugation of kauri Gnomic Present Imperfect Aorist Perfect Future
Indicative kaur kaut kauvt kout kouvt koa
Subjunctive kaura kaurth kaurvath kourt kourvot kourva
Non-finite forms
Active Present participle kaunar, kauna, kaunam Past participle kaurot, kaurot, kaurot Infinitive kauri
Passive Present participle kaura, kauranes Past participle kaurthar, kaurtha, kaurtham Infinitive kaurinna

The verb tvashon has no past tense forms or passive participle.

Conjugation of tvashon Gnomic Present Future
Indicative tvasho tvashot tvashou
Subjunctive tvashona tvashoth tvashout
Non-finite forms
Present participle tvashar, tvasha, tvasham Infinitive tvashon

Syntax

Tylan is an SVO language; the subject comes first, then the verb, then the object. Adjectives can come either before or after the noun, and always agree with the noun in class, case, and number.

Passive voice

Tylan does not have a passive voice; instead, it has a construct for reversing word order. By putting the prefix dha- onto the verb, Nom-Acc case nouns become accusative before the verb, and nominative after.

  • Psekna aktathevat Shokar
    Psekna insulted Shokar.
  • Psekna dha'aktathevat Shokar
    Shokar insulted Psekna.

Yes/no questions

Tylan uses the particle ei for yes/no questions, being placed after the word being questioned.

For example:

  • Helasrar aktathi paura, ei?
    Did Helasrar insult you? (i.e. it is not known whether Helasrar insulted the listener)
  • Helasrar aktathi, paura ei?
    Was it you whom Helasrar insulted? (i.e. it is known that Helasrar insulted someone)
  • Helasrar, aktathi ei, paura?
    Was insulting what Helasrar did to you? (i.e. it is known that Helasrar did something to the listener)
  • Helasrar ei, aktathi paura?
    Was it Helasrar who insulted you? (i.e. it is known that someone insulted the listener)
  • Althanar, paga ei, vrani bomba?
    Was it you to whom Althanar gave the bomb? (i.e. it is known that Althanar gave a bomb to someone)

When it is the entire sentence being questioned, the particle ei is placed at the end after a comma/pause. When it is a specific word or phrase, the particle ei is placed after the word or phrase and they are surrounded by commas/pauses.

For answers to these questions, the modal verb ejan is used:

  • "Helasrar aktathevo paura, ei?"
    Ejo.
    "Did Helasrar insult you?"
    Yes he did.
  • "Helasrar aktathevo paura, ei?"
    Nau'ejo.
    "Did Helasrar insult you?"
    No he didn't.
  • "Helasrar aktathevo paura, ei?"
    Ejava.
    "Did Helasrar insult you?"
    No, but he will.
  • "Helasrar aktathevo paura, ei?"
    Nau'ejava.
    "Did Helasrar insult you?"
    No, and he won't.

Subordinate clauses

There are many different subordinate clauses in Tylan, most of which are formed in nearly identical ways.

  • Purpose clause: thu + indicative
  • Indirect statement: keha + indicative
  • Indirect question: hae + question word + indicative
  • Result clause: (uses demonstrative correlative) + dhasa + indicative
  • Indirect command: same as purpose clause except the independent clause uses a command verb
  • Temporal clause: geanauho + subordinate indicative + vreanauho + independent clause

Relative clauses

Nouns in a relative clause take a relative clause marker suffix, and the verb takes a relativizer suffix -levr. The suffix that the noun takes depends on its case in the relative clause.

Relative Clause Noun Suffixes
Nominative -re
Accusative -rha
Dative -reha
Genitive -reth

For example:

  • Se kato'ereha, sig vranivatlevr roetkamas miha, truhat sok miha thu srangat refvas.
    The person, to whom I had given a doomsday device, is using that device to destroy cities.

In the case of a genitive noun that modifies another noun, the noun takes the suffix -levr. For example:

  • Se kato'ereth, Helar Roe srango vaelig terulevr, prau vreokaff.
    The person, whose home planet was destroyed by the Death Star, now seeks revenge.

Normal word order still applies in relative clauses, thus it is still "Helar Roe srango vaelig terulevr", with the modified noun after the verb.

Copula

Tylan does not use a traditional copula, and it doesn't use standard adjectival degrees in copula sentences; instead, it uses pronouns, articles, and adjectives as verbs.

  • To say, "I am a Tylan", a verbal form of the first-person nominative singular pronoun is used before the noun: Siga Tulasrar
  • To say, "I was a Tylan", a conjugated verbal form of the first-person nominative singular pronoun is used before the noun: Sigavat Tulasrar
  • To say, "A Tylan is a warrior", the third-person nominative pronoun is used with the second noun coming after: Tulasrar vara kshasrar
  • To say, "A Tylan was a warrior", the third-person nominative pronoun is used with the second noun coming after: Tulasrar varavat kshasrar
  • To say, "I am brave", the adjective is placed after the pronoun: Siga jolar
  • To say, "The Tylan is brave", the article is conjugated as a verb and the noun is placed before the adjective: Se'a Tulasrar jolar
  • To say, "The Tylan was brave", the article is conjugated as a verb and the noun is placed before the adjective: Se'ava Tulasrar jolar
  • To say, "The Tylan is braver", the noun is placed before the dative definite form of the adjective, corresponding with the noun's gender: Se'a Tulasrar ser jolae
  • To say, "The Tylan is braver than the human", the second noun is placed in the genitive case after the adjective: Se'a Tulasrar ser jolae Sakksalis
  • To say, "The Tylan is bravest", the genitive plural spiritual form of the adjective is used, following the corresponding definite article: Se'a Tulasrar sent jolan

Conjugating the article/pronoun is optional if the tense is understood from context.

Numerals

Tylan numerals count in base 12 using additive and subtractive notation. Some examples are listed below:

Number Tylan numeral
0 D
1 E
2 EE
3 EEE
4 EEO
5 EO
6 O
7 OE
8 OEE
9 OEEE
10 EEH
11 EH
12 H
13 HE
14 HEE
15 HEEE
16 HEEO
17 HEO
18 HO
19 HOE
20 HOEE
21 HOEEE
22 HEEH
23 HEH
24 HH
25 HHE
26 HHEE
27 HHEEE
28 HHEEO
29 HHEO
30 HHO
31 HHOE
32 HHOEE
33 HHOEEE
34 HHEEH
35 HHEH
36 HHH
72 F
144 P
864 B
1,728 L
10,368 T
20,736 M
124,416 V
248,832 R

Tylan numerals use additive notation for 12-multiples of 1, 2, and 3, and subtractive notation for multiples of 4 and 5.

Fractional parts

The fractional parts of Tylan numerals are separated from the whole part by a colon (:), and are written differently as well.

0 M 1 E 2 O 3 H
4 F 5 P 6 B 7 L
8 T 9 M 10 V 11 R

Scientific notation

Tylan also has a form of scientific notation, where the entire number is expressed with a fractional part and exponent of 12.

For example, the number 1,02410 can be expressed as EEE::LEF, where EEE (3) is the exponent, and LEF is the fractional part. Thus this notation is equivalent to 0.71412 × 123.

Number words

Tylan number words are listed here:

Number Word
0 teijar, teija, teijam
1 eijar, eija, eijam
2 vporas, vporas, vpora
3 nrei (indeclinable)
4 tvorch (indeclinable)
5 vtirk (indeclinable)
6 ksask (indeclinable)
7 ktern (indeclinable)
8 augor (indeclinable)
9 skachs (indeclinable)
10 kmed (indeclinable)
11 vokre (indeclinable)

These words are suffixes with the following multipliers, and are added together when in sequence:

Multiplier Mult. value Word
120 1 (no suffix)
121 12 -nam
122 144 -ja
123 1,728 -vad
124 20,736 -korg
125 248,832 -tirk
126 2,985,984 -leo
127 35,831,808 -leo nam
128 429,981,696 -leo ja
129 5,159,780,352 -lem
1210 61,917,364,224 -lem nam
1211 743,008,370,688 -lem ja
1212 8,916,100,448,256‬ -ler

For example, the number 16,38310 is rendered in base 12 as 9,59312, which becomes skachsvad vtirkja skachsnam nrei.

Naming customs

Tylan naming customs are similar to Mechyrdian customs; a given name, followed by a matronymic, and ending with a family/house name and patron god. They differ in that Mechyrdian uses patronymics for sons, and uses titles of accomplishment instead of a patron god's name.

Given name

The Tylan given name is typically derived from some noun or adjective, e.g. Shokar "wise", Prevka "protection", Althanar "conquerer", Helasra "stellar".

Matronymic

The Tylan matronymic is derived from the genitive form of the mother's given name, followed by a hyphen, and the word Senir "son" or Nahra "daughter".

Family/house name

The Tylan house name is the genitive form of the house's name, e.g. the house name Shtam Kaesarsteth becomes Kaesarste as a house name.

Patron god name

Upon a Tylan's 13th birthday, they enter a ceremony known as the Machsuvan (Readying), where the Tylan chooses a god from the Pantheon as their patron. Back in the days of the Theocracy, this would also lock them into a certain education path and career, however the Tylan Republic is more flexible. The god's name is put into the genitive form, and hyphenated with the word Rho'et (follower).

Example names

Some example names (and their broken-down forms) are:

  • Althanar Helasras-Senir Tauniskras Tuja-Rho'et
    Althanar (Conquerer), son of Helasra (Stellar one), of the house Tauniskram, follower of Tyra (the Tylan god of war)
  • Psekna Kjorskevas-Nahra Varchonte Tsachnas-Rho'et
    Psekna (Inspiring to others), daughter of Kjorskeva (Skull-collector), of the house Varchonteth, follower of Tsachnar (the Tylan god of law and order)

Alphabet

The Tylan language has its own alphabet; this website uses the transliteration, however the alphabet can be sampled below:

Latin alphabet:

Tylan alphabet:

Part of a series on Mechyrdia